Uganda, once a British colony, is a beautiful landlocked country situated in the Eastern part of Africa along the equator. The countries of Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, and Sudan surround its borders. It covers an area of approximately 240,000 square km and has a population of about 37.58 million people (2013) World Bank.
Uganda’s beauty, wildlife diversity, and friendly people justify its reputation as ‘The Pearl of Africa’. The habitats are immensely varied and it can be stated without exaggeration that Uganda is one of the most biologically diverse nations on the continent: with forests, snow-capped mountains, Savannah, crater lakes, and volcanoes.
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizeable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, and it employs over 80% of the workforce. Coffee is the major export crop. It is a country politically divided into 110 districts, each with its full administrative unit representing all sectors of government and the economy.
The president of Uganda is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, and he has been the president since 1986. The president heads the Executive, assisted by the Vice President and the cabinet ministers. The parliament which is the legislative arm of government consists of members elected by the people. The Judiciary is formed by various forms of judicature which are independent of other arms of government.
Uganda became a British Protectorate in 1894 and gained independence in 1962. October 9th is Uganda’s Independence Day celebrated annually.
Uganda’s National Emblem is the coat of arms. Standing on a green mound is a shield, and two crossed spears. The green symbolises Uganda’s rich, green vegetation. Supporting the shield are the Uganda Kob, signifying the abundance of wildlife; and the Crested Crane, Uganda’s national bird.
The shield and spears symbolise our readiness to defend our motherland against all enemies. Across the top of the shield are the waves of Lake Victoria, the second largest freshwater lake on earth. In the centre of the shield is the sun, representing Uganda’s glorious sunny days.
At the bottom of the shield is the traditional African drum, used for dancing, ceremonial rituals, and for summoning the people to rally. Coffee and cotton, Uganda’s main cash crops, are displayed on the green mound; together with the River Nile, the world’s longest river; which starts its 8 000 km (5 000 miles) journey in Uganda.
The Uganda Motto is “For God and My Country”.
The Uganda flag has the colours of the crested crane, the national bird, which is featured on the flag. The crested crane represents Uganda’s beauty; black represents the people; yellow, warmth and the sun; and red, the blood of brotherhood.